Types of Whitewater Rafts

Types of Whitewater Rafts

There are three main types of rafts: paddle boat, gear boat and an oar/paddle combination raft. Each craft has its advantages. Paddle boats can carry the most people, require the least amount of rigging. Gear boats are best for carry lots of equipment on multi-day trips. Oar/paddle combos and stern mounts can carry more people than a gear boat with greater acceleration while allowing a guide more control than with a paddle boat. All three have their advantages.

Paddle Boats

shows what a paddle raft looks like
Paddle raft

In a paddle boat everyone has a paddle with a guide in the back giving commands and steering. The most common paddle boat is a 14-foot raft with six paddlers and a guide. This set up is ideal for day trips on class III and IV water. The best paddle rafts are stiff so they don’t fold making it easy for people to hold their positions in the raft.

Historically paddle boats had two thwarts. However, the newer rafts with three thwarts making it easier for all 6 paddlers. The most dangerous place to sit in a paddle raft is the back which acts like a launching pad when rafts go over bigger drops. Many guides prefer oar rafts or oar/paddle combo rafts for the added control of not needing to rely on paddlers. Running a paddle raft well requires training your paddle crew.

show what is meant by a paddle boat guide being launched


R-2ing has increased in popularity over the years. R-2 stands for raft with two people. Most often the two paddlers will sit across from each other in the middle of the raft. Paddlers typically discuss where they want to take the raft rather than calling out commands. Since there is less weight in the boat it more maneuverable and less likely to flip off of rocks. Many of the people running hard technical class V rivers prefer R-2ing.

picture shows difficulty of rapid on the NOrth Fork of the Tuolumne River as well as the scenery

While R-2ing is attractive because of the ease of running rivers, it is also popular due to the ease of organizing and getting on the river. All one needs is a buddy and minimal rafting gear. Rigging at put-in is fast and gear doesn’t take much room in the car. This my favorite way to run a river.

Oar/paddle Combos (Stern Mounts)

As rivers increase in difficulty it’s helpful for the guide to have added control when steering the raft. This is more true on high-volume rivers where rafts need to be turned to face into large breaking diagonal waves. An oar/paddle combo takes the best of aspects rowing, the ability to easily turn the raft and combines it with the power and acceleration of a paddle boat. The biggest disadvantage is the oars can quickly become dangerous weapons when surfing in a hole or if they get caught on a rock. On rocky rivers guides have to ship their oars constantly making a paddle raft more functional in those moments.

shows what little green wall rapid looks like with an oar/paddle combo raft
Shipping oars in an oar/paddle combo (aka creek frame)

Sometimes oar/paddle combos are referred to as stern mounts. In this case the small frame is rigged on the stern of the raft. This works well on high water as it allows for a maximum number of paddlers to still ride in the raft. However, much like a paddle raft when going over drops this rig is known to launch guides causing injuries.

shows what a stern mount looks like on a paddle raft
Stern mount with tractor seat

A creek frame (or day frame) is a small frame that is rigged on the flat part of the raft in front of the stern. This puts the guide in a more stable position so they are less likely to get thrown around. The disadvantage of this rig is that there is less space for paddlers. A 14-foot raft would have space for a maximum of 4 paddlers plus a guide. While a stern mount in a 14-foot raft would have space for 4 paddlers.

Gear Boat

In a gear boat the guide is seated most often on a cooler close to the center of the raft surrounded by a frame that can carry an extensive amount of gear. There is typically space for two to three people to sit in the front of the raft. Lounging in the front of a gear boat float through a canyon is one of the most enjoyable ways to travel.

show s gradient of galloping gerdie rapid on the Selway River
Gear boat

Some gear boats will have the back of the raft completely full with gear. Others will have two more people sitting in the back of the boat. This can also be fun and a little more dangerous. The passengers in the back of the boat need to be watched because if they sit up high it is easy for them to get thrown. In addition, on rocky rivers when shipping oars guides have to be careful that if their oar catches a rock it doesn’t shoot back and hit the rider behind them.

An oar boat is a gear boat without the gear. Instead it has a light center mount frame. Like an oar/paddle combo, the seat for an oar boat is usually a tractor seat or a slant board. An oar boat is usually light with just the rower and maybe a little bit of gear just for a day. These boats are nimble and great for rocky low volume runs. They are terrible in big water when they get knocked around by waves due to their lack of mass.

shows what an oar raft with a center mount frame looks like
Oar raft with center mounted slant board

Concluding Thoughts

Gear boats, paddle boats, and oar/paddle combos are the main types of raft configurations. People have made all sorts of variations of them. On some rivers they run a gear boat with 4 paddlers, one in each corner of the raft. Other rivers will take a creek frame plus gear and two paddlers for a multi-day excursion. A good way to try out the different types of rafts is to take a guide school.

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